Collagen Basic Structure
collagen basic structure
The basic structural unit of collagen is the tropocollagen. The procollagen peptide has a primary structure with (Gly-xy) n repeats, where x is usually proline (Pro) and y is hydroxyproline Hypro) or Hydroxylysine (Hylys). The glycosylation of Hylys residues occurs with a galactose residue (Gal) but usually Glu-Gal-. The amount of sugar on the collagen is about 10% of the collagen. The procollagen is a fibrous protein composed of three α-peptide chains, mutually twisted into three strands of helical configuration with a length of 300 nm and a diameter of 1.5 nm.
So far, about 20 genes have been found to encode different types of collagen in different tissues. Different types of collagen are located in specific tissues in the body. There are also 2-3 different types of collagen present in the same tissue.
Similarities and Differences of Collagen, Gelatin and Collagen
Collagen is translated into collagen (protein), commonly known as collagen, in English-Chinese Chemistry and Chemical Vocabulary (3rd Edition, Science Press, 1988), sometimes to account for the convenience of injury or to emphasize the properties of the protein. Collgagen Make collagen. Collagen is a type of protein that exists in animal tissues and organs. With the different methods and conditions, collagen, gelatin and collagen can be produced during the extraction and separation. What can be called collagen must be that type of protein whose triple helix structure has not changed, yet retain its biological activity.
Gelatin is a denatured product of collagen under the action of acids, bases, enzymes or high temperature. It consists of 18 amino acids, like collagen, but has lost its biological activity.
The first hydrolyzate of the collagen, collagen, is a triple-helix structure of collagen that is loosened into three free peptide chains and degraded into polydispersed segments, including small peptides. Therefore, collagen is a mixture of peptides, the relative molecular mass from a few thousand to tens of thousands, a wide distribution of molecular weight, no biological activity, soluble in cold water, and can be protease utilization. Collagen is extremely closely linked to the body's growth, aging and disease. Because of its good biocompatibility, nutrition, repair, moisturizing, compatibility and affinity, it is widely used in biomedical materials, cosmetics, food and health products and other functional products. Collagen has beauty (anti-wrinkle, moisturizing, whitening, weight loss, breast enhancement), prevention of osteoporosis, improve joint health, improve blood circulation, stomach, improve human immunity and other effects.
Through the above description, can be summarized as follows: a collagen has biological activity, do not dissolve in cold water and hot water, can not be protease utilization; b gelatin relatively high molecular weight only soluble in hot water, insoluble in cold water, collagen molecules Lower quality, wider molecular weight distribution than gelatin, soluble in cold water; c. Gelatin and collagen are biologically inactive but can be utilized by proteases.